TMA: Contemporary Developments in the ASEAN Communication Scene.

The book “Linking Research to Practice” was a very useful read as it tried to explain the reason why digital media especially blog have been a powerful tool in disseminating information to us readers.

For us Filipinos, it’s not much quite of a surprise that we are probably one of those who are actively uses the internet. According to SIRCA, the Philippines are at 83.1 of internet users and there were 3.3 billion of Filipino blog readers which tells me that we rely in the internet for information about everything that we need to know.

The social media sites such as Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram were also useful in voicing our thoughts and views about politics, government, entertainment, and fashion. However, too much useful that I would be shock at the comments made by netizens. Netizens nowadays have used the freedom of expression way too good because they can just say anything they want without being critical or analytical about the topic.

Here in the Philippines, especially during the May 2016 election, the emotions are high, and there were too much negativity in the social media. There are moments that you have to keep your thoughts to yourself because anything can be publicly shared and when your opinion does not much the other people’s point of view, they will demean you.And that can be the downside of these social media tools like blogging and twittering, the comments may sometimes not be monitored.

Although, blogging have been one of the avenue that the youth delegates of ASEAN participated into. According to the Rappler article about it, youth delagates discussed the issues that will be faced in the ASEAN Integration last December. This activity invited all the youth bloggers in participating in the blog website and it was not a surprise that a lot of Asians took their time in sharing their reflections towards ASEAN Integration.

This all boils down to one thing, social media is a powerful tool in influencing our thoughts and reflections. They can actually affect our behavior due to information that may be relevant to us. And bloggers are also like movie actors, what they know, that they use can be influential to us because of their strong advocacy or liking about it.


Linking Research to Practice (Chib and Harris, Eds)


TMA 2: Communication and ASEAN Integration.

The many reading materials that I have read regarding ASEAN Integration made me realize that even I as a Filipino is not much aware of the whole concept of ASEAN. Though, it’s quite sad that even if there is an association like ASEAN which aims to promote prosperity and foster relationship that will help in boosting the economy of the ten neighboring countries namely: Philippines, Brunei, Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, Singapore, Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia.

However, the more I get to know about this program, the more I realized that we have a long way to go before we perceived that ASEAN with its ten countries have an identity because from the looks of it, we are quite divided with the ideology and knowledge about these Asian countries.

For one, according to Prof. Benjamina Flor’s paper, “The Asian Media Landscape”, one thing that somehow makes this association crucial is the difference in beliefs and values, characteristics, and even stereotypes.

But as individuals, I believe that we know how to conform and follow rules and thanks to technology, we are in tuned to the latest news about our neighboring countries which makes it easier to foster good relationship.

Mass media especially the digital media through social media like Instagram, Facebook, Twitter keeps the connection open. Especially when it comes to travel, we become one with the country we are currently in. We immersed ourselves in their food, their culture. When I went to Hongkong last 2014, I made it a point to research the following do’s and don’ts in the country. I know for a fact that some of Hongkong nationals or perhaps Chinese in Mainland China visiting the place can be snob and “rude” because of certain manners, like not falling in line, or spitting just anywhere, but as a tourist, I may feel disgusted and perhaps irked with them, however, as someone who is visiting the country for the first time, you have to understand that it could be one of their personality as a country. It what’s makes them up and perhaps there is more to see than meets the eye, and indeed, Hongkong is one of the most favored destination.

And that also goes to other South-East Asian countries, they have their own rules that we need to abide and them also when they are visiting the Philippines.

I guess what would make the whole ASEAN Integration work is have these different countries immersed in different tourism projects that will promote the awesomeness of each neighboring country. Also, it would help if curriculum in our school would include ASEAN lessons so that youth will have an idea on how other people from different Asian country lives, their culture, their jobs, etc.

Perhaps, I would not mention about documentaries featuring these countries because they are a lot right now.

It is interesting that even of there are differences in our characteristics, beliefs, us Asians, know how to mingle and create wonderful relationships. And due to more work opportunities available to us, it can help our economy and other SEA countries to have better economy.


An Asean identity?



DEVC 242 TMA 1: Introduction to ASEAN Media and Communication.

While reading the following recommended materials for this topic, I have realized that we are indeed so lucky to be living in an era where information is delivered to you in just one click of your finger. The rise of the digital age has proven that ASEAN countries has proven that they are capable of being at par with their Western neighbors.  According to Raymond Siva’s article “Communicating in ASEAN: The Need for Flexibility in Diverse Region”, the development of the economic structure in Asia has enabled its countries to be more digital-savvy. Asians are more in tune with the latest news and topics via their smart phones. In the same article, it was stressed also that while ASEAN countries may be enjoying the benefits of technology advancement like Internet, other Asian countries like Laos and Cambodia, may be too far behind when it comes to connecting via technology. In “The Asian Media ?Landscape”, Professor Benjie Flor mentioned that these two countries are the lowest in terms of ranking in developing ICT’s. Not only that, it can be also taken into consideration how media is portrayed and utilized in Asian countries. Until now we have to remember that not all countries in Asia can speak and disseminate information readily. Louie Tabing’s paper “The Development of Community Media in South-East Asia” enumerated some key point of communication media not being really accessible to the people or at least not freely stated: questioning about the powers given to the Kings and Sultan is prohibited. Here in the Philippines, from what I have observed, I would like to say that freedom of speech is freely expressed. Thanks to social media, information just about anything is easily accessed. Though, I noticed that us, Pinoys tend to be express our thoughts abruptly, that we tend to be more defensive of our opinions. However, it can be seen that Filipino people are really active in social media via Twitter, Instagram, and Facebook.

Delivering of news here in the Philippines though may be monitored. After all, the biggest network in the country are privately-owned and they have to protect their interest. However, Tabing stated in his paper that media facilities in Asia still holds its purpose to inform the people about the development in their city and country.

That is why even if people in some South-East Asian country may not have accessed to internet and social media, they can still stay abreast with the news through print media and radio which have proven to be effective in disseminating information. Tabing explained the community-based media offer a great deal of information that leads to the development of a city or town. It is within the people’s goal to develop its community that reinforces the act of sharing information that makes South-East Asia mobile and efficient both in technology and other sectors such as agricultural and economical.

As an ASEAN student now, I have become more interested in our neighboring countries. They have become an example that is thriving in all aspects of what a country should be like Singapore, I have always been amazed at how a small-population country can do excellent in their country. Their developement is truly amazing. I was inspired by the article in Manila Bulettin entitled “The roles of media and communication in Asean”, this article has a strong will of obligation to make the ASEAN policies work in terms of promoting co-ASEAN countries about their beauty and development.

This goes to show that we have to be be fully aware of our potential as a country to be able to promote ourselves to our ASIAN neighbors and also knowing their strenghts and weaknesses so that we can further hone our skills as Filipinos that can serves as an inspiration to them.


“The ASEAN Media Landscape”. BenjaminaGonzalez-Flor.

“Communicating in ASEAN: The Need for Flexibility in a Diverse Region”.Raymond Siva. Available at:

The roles of media and communication in Asean

“The Development of Community Media in South-East Asia”.Louie Tabing. Available at:




How technology has helped me in accomplishing my task and learned from them in school.

Module 2 which is about integration of technology has opened my eyes on how really technology has really shaped me in my schooling years. Little did I know that blackboard, chalk, charts were considered as instructional media and moving from Powerpoint presentation, slides, the use of Microsoft Word has contributed a lot in my learning.

Technology is a really powerful tool in education because it allows us to heightened our skills in researching, in navigating the machine. Before where students may be passive learners because of the amount of time they devote on just listening or observing on the instructional medium presented like slides, film clips, now, we can be our own captain of the ship when it comes to different high-tech gadgets, software, tablets, available to us.

I have always been a visual learner. I am fascinated by the pictures and vivid images presented and it really made studying more engaging.And with the different requirements needed to be submitted, it

Module 6 – Types of Social Mobilization and strategies

Elements  of Social Mobilization

  • advocacy – one component of social mobilization wherein it convinces, persuades, and motivates the individual to participate in life-changing activities. Positive environment projects are often supported by policy support and resource generation group.
  • information, education and communication (iec) – this is where information are shared via communication methods.
  • community organizing – this is one of the important elements of social mobilization that helps individuals be more keen in problem-solving and to do action in every issue.
  • training and capacity building – this is where people are taught to be more competent in delivering services that will raise more awareness in mobilizing the program. Again, its aim is to develop people’s ability to make reliable decisions and act on activities.

Types of social mobilization

  • pragmatic social mobilization – community organizers develop ways to share relevant message that will help the project be successful and achieve its goals.
  • activist social mobilization – the programs and activities are facilitated by community members.
  • hybrid social mobilization – planning, implementation and evaluation are strictly followed by organizers in doing a project.

Module 5: Social Mobilization in social marketing

The emergence of new media especially on the 21st century enabled a lot of us to be more interactive and aware of what is really happening in our society.

Social media is considered right now as one of the most effective tool in communication and information sharing.

With many social media sites like Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, and even the blogs, people can check on the official page, and therefore know whatever policies that it is being promoted that will benefit the consumers.

since, it’s technically free to share information in the net, social media allows connection and thus can generate impact, positive or negative reactions that can yield for them to improve their porgramme.

Module 7: Monitoring and Evaluation

Report on Monitoring and Evaluation

Definition of Monitoring

According to “Project/Programme Monitoring and Evaluation Guide” by International Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, monitoring is the routine collection and analysis of information to track progress against set plan and check compliance to established standards. As I have understood, it is a continuous process of gathering the data related to the campaign, project, or activity launched that will answer the question “are things going alright?” on the said activity.

Evaluation on the other hand is a systematic and objective process of identifying if the measures taken or used in the activity are progressive. In the web article, “What is monitoring and evaluation (M&E)?, evaluations appraise data and information that inform strategic decisions, thus making the whole process open for improvements.

With evaluation, we are able to set and fulfil objectives which leads to the development, efficiency effectiveness, impact, and sustainability of the social mobilization project.

In “Project/Programme Monitoring and Evaluation Guide”e by International Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, there are five common types of monitoring:

  • Results monitoring – monitoring merges with evaluation to determine if the project on target towards results (output, outcomes, impact).
  • Process monitoring – it examines how activities are delivered. If the resources will were delivered in a timely schedule.
  • Compliance monitoring – makes sure that it abides with the regulations of the local government, laws and they manage to deliver the requirements on time.
  • Context monitoring – it checks on the possible risks and assumptions, setbacks on the said project.
  • Beneficiary monitoring – it tracks beneficiary of a project. It includes a stakeholder complaints and feedback mechanism.
  • Financial monitoring – it monitors the money given to the one facilitating the whole project or programme and making sure that the money is allocated within the specific time and budget.
  • Organizational monitoring – if there are any partners involve in the project, this kind of monitoring checks on the communication between the facilitators and community involved.

The logic model that can be used in doing a monitoring and evaluation plan.

Two types of monitoring indicators:

Qualitative Data – This answer the questions “why” and “how”. According to “Monitoring and Evaluation Guidelines”, qualitative data analysis is the search for patterns and relationships in raw data. Explanations and reasoning are usually the basis in the analysis of the data being monitored.

Quantitative Data – From the same web article, it describes quantitative data as the presentation of numeric results of the monitoring report. This may answer the question “how much” and “how many”.

These are the following questions that needs to be answered in doing an EVALUATION.

As per “Monitoring and Evaluation” by Civicus, these are the ways of doing an evaluation:

  • Self-evaluation – wherein self-reflection is the key element in doing the assessment for the project.
  • Participatory evaluation – people such as the beneficiaries and the staff are involved in this internal evaluation.
  • Rapid Participatory Appraisal – qualitative in form, it is meant as a starting point in gathering information to better understand the situation of a community or the project.
  • External Evaluation – someone who is really not part of the team facilitates the evaluation.
  • Interactive evaluation – the evaluation team and the organization of the project are both involve in the evaluation.

Outputs, outcomes, and impact of campaign is also the basis for evaluation.

  • Output –these are campaign activities that needed to be measure like media coverage, number of materials created, and the implementation of the program elements.

We can measure them through surveys, focus groups, personal interviews.

  • Outcomes –the target audiences’ reaction to the campaign is the one being measured here to check if the program/project was effective.

We can measure them through surveys, satisfaction ratings, focus groups, personal interviews.

  • Impacts – long term effect of the behaviour changes in the issue being campaigned.

We can measure them through population-based surveys, and data, control groups.

This, on the other hand is a sample monitoring and evaluation taken from (which you may check on).

Now, monitoring and evaluation is very vital in every campaign or social mobilization project because this will enable you to learn what elements that will work and what will not work in your project. You will also be on track in checking if the resources used were utilized and your objectives were followed. With the glitches and tested ways, we are able to adjust our program.


“Monitoring and Evaluation Guidelines” by United Nations World Food Programme Office of Evaluation. Available at

“Project/Programme Monitoring and Evaluation Guide” by International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies. Available at

Monitoring and Evaluation. Available at

“Handbook on Monitoring and Evaluation for Results” by United Nations Development Programme. Available at

Monitoring and Evaluation. Available at

Research, Monitoring, and Evaluation VAW Social Marketing Campaigns. Available at

Images used courtesy of google.images

Module 4c: Audience Segmentation, Goals, and Objectives

Social mobilization enables all different sectors to engage and participate in an activity that promotes developmental change and awareness.


Political Mobilization

Governmenr Mobilization

Community Mobilization

Corporate Mobilization

Beneficiary Mobilization

Segmenting the audience is very crucial in a social marketing plan because it enables you to identify that one important and vital factor in making it distinct among others. With audience segmentation, it is much easier to check the 4 P’s which is important in marketing.

4P’s are: Products, Price, Promotion, and Place.

Here are some ways we can break down the target population:

Demographics- gender, age, education, religion, income

Geographic – location or residence of the people

Behaviors, lifestyle, habits

Psychographic meaning how a person perceives or feels about tradition, customs, etc.

The reason for doing audience segmentation because it helps us formulate our goals and objectives. The goal in a social marketing campaign would be the achievement of what it is needed to be accomplished or the desired outcome. While objective on the other hand are the steps that we do or make in order to achieve the goal.

There are two ways in achieving social marketing objectives:


SMART Approach

My report on Module 4b: Environmental Scanning

According to Kendra S. Albright who wrote Environment Scanning: Radar for Success, environmental scanning or analysis is very vital in every organization or perhaps even in social marketing because it allows recognition of possible problems, issues, and external factors such as “social, economic, and technical issues” that may regularly appear on a project.

For an environmental scanning to be accurate, the environment that is important in any social marketing project should have these characteristics:

  • Dynamism- A characteristic of the environment which is rapid and constantly changing. It is flexible in nature, thus it can adapt to any varying conditions of the environment.
  • Complexity –demographic, economic, physical, and political factors contribute in this kind of environment which may arouse complications.
  • Uncertainty- due to environment being dynamic and complex, may cause future to be unpredictable or unclear especially if there’s not much information or explanation is given.
  • Munificence- this is where support and resources is given to an organization due to consistency of goals organization and members of the environment.

Methods of Environmental Scanning:

  • Opinion Leaders Survey – they may affect our views and beliefs because they can deeply influence in our society especially if they know the issues really well.
  • Media Content Analysis – these are particular topics that are gaining popularity in news and in media, thus, also influencing people’s thoughts on these issues.
  • Public Opinion Surveys – polls answered by the public may also play a vital part in our social marketing plan.
  • Analysis of Legislative Trends – from what I have understood, these are polls answered by politicians in their take on social issues.
  • KAP/RRA – the use of quantitative research technique by stakeholders to figure out their knowledge, attitude, and practice on social issues.

Characteristics of Environment

  • Demographic Forces – this is where we focus on the subjects’ age, gender, education,religion, and socio-economic status.

Examples would be birth and death rate, marital status in terms of statistics in marriage, statistics on how many students have enrolled this year. It mainly deals with statistics so that these numbers may be relevant in formulating a social marketing plan.

  • Economic Forces – this particularly studies on how people are willing to spend on a product. Or rather a product related to a social marketing project.

For example, the use of contraceptives for women and condoms for men, how much are they willing to spend on these products?

  • Physical Forces – are anything to do with nature such as climatic conditions, daily temperature, stress-level, availability of local resources.

From what I have understood, it would be well, a run for a cause, it should be strategically set up in a place wherein all advocates of that cause may have the chance to participate.

  • Political Factors – government policies from different governing departments, laws that need to be considered in any campaign that will be formulated.

For the campaign in the 90’s, Yosi Kadiri, and Mamamayan Ayaw sa Drogam thorough research was done before a national campaign was to be implemented which have been successful during that time.

  • Technological Forces – these are innovations in technology that will greatly affect how information about your campaign will be reached, read, and followed by readers and audience.

Now, with the advent of internet as a medium for communication, this can be a tool in informing users about a social marketing project. Issues related to the social marketing project can be known in just one click of a finger through numerous social media sites, like Facebook, Twitter, and blogs.

Mapping the Internal and External Environments:

Step 1

  • For any social marketing plan or any project, we begin by telling or informing the audience the details of the plan. This may contain the introduction about the problem and would include statistics, scientific research data, causes and effect of the problem or issue that we would like to tackle on. This will serve as a means for your readers or audience to understand why we are doing this social marketing plan or project.
  • State the purpose of your social marketing plan. If it is to raise awareness and change the behavior of the readers, audience, then we can write that in our purpose.
  • From the numerous purposes that have been formulated, check which one will suit best serve for your purpose. From Analyzing the Social Marketing Environment, it listed the focus we can choose from to help decide on the final purpose:
  1. Behavior Change Potential
  2. Market supply
  3. Organizational Match
  4. Funding Sources and Appeal
  5. Impact

Base from what I understood, this will be my example for Identifying Potential Focus for Campaign

Social Issue Campaign Purpose Options for Campaign Purpose
Breastfeeding (Non-Profit Organization) To increase awareness among pregnant women about the perks of breastfeeding and its benefits to the babies. Breastfeeding classes, seminars.
Glam photo shoot/ pictorial for breastfeeding women to boost self esteem
Breast pumping seminars for breastmilk storage
Oplan Breastfeeding campaign held in MOA

Step 2

  • Make a SWOT analysis – identify the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats of your environment and at the same time.
  1. Check on the Strengths of those organizations in your microenvironment such as partners, and your services, that will be delivered or given to your audience.
  2. For the weakness, one must consider the available resources, if this will be enough to cover the whole expenses for the campaign.
  3. Opportunities may cover the macro environment by means of knowing those people or policies that will help your campaign to move forward.
  4. Lastly, threats may be applied to physical forces that may be uncontrollable or unexpected, so we have to be prepared for that as well.


Kotler, P. 2007.  Mapping the Internal and External Environments.  Available at

Velasco, et al.  1999.  DEVC208 Module.  Module 6.  Environmental Scanning/ Analysis.  Pp109-119

Albright, Kendra. 2004. Environment Scanning: Radar for Success. Available at

Image grabbed from

Module 11 – Development Communication Practice

After reading this module, since I have been working in broadcasting network for the longest time, I believe I will be more efficient in the community broadcasting. I’ve worked before as a producer and I was able to produce episodes that depicted poverty, wellness for mothers, etc. and seeing that some of our kababayan, who does not have that much in life, makes you want to tell their stories so that all of us will see how privilege we are and they need our help. Television and other forms of media like radio and print can be a perfect gateway in informing people about what is really happening to our society.

It was mentioned that development communication can serve as a catalyst for change, and what we can do may help the lives of these people in getting better.

Their lives will be improved and I think that is what we aspire for a better community, place to live in.